Let prime p and any a∈Z so that a ≡/0 mod p

a^{p-1} ≡ 1 mod p.

- e
^{ix}= cos x + i sin x

- e
^{iπ}= cos π + i sin π - e
^{iπ}= – 1 + i x 0 - e
^{iπ}= – 1 - e
^{iπ}+ 1 = 0

Let prime p and any a∈Z so that a ≡/0 mod p

a^{p-1} ≡ 1 mod p.

- e
^{ix}= cos x + i sin x

- e
^{iπ}= cos π + i sin π - e
^{iπ}= – 1 + i x 0 - e
^{iπ}= – 1 - e
^{iπ}+ 1 = 0

- e
^{z}= e^{x+iy}= e^{x}(cos y + i sin y)

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